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Salk Institute: SARS-CoV-2’s distinctive "spike" protein plays a key role in the disease itself


Published Studies: mRNA Vaccines are NOT safe 0 Comments 09/14/2021 

Posted By: Fielden Nolan (nolanf)

Source: https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210503/SARS-CoV-2e28099s-distinctive-spike-protein-plays-a-key-role-in-the-disease-itself-shows-study.aspx

Scientists have known for a while that SARS-CoV-2's distinctive "spike" proteins help the virus infect its host by latching on to healthy cells. Now, a major new study shows that they also play a key role in the disease itself.

The paper, published on April 30, 2021, in Circulation Research, also shows conclusively that COVID-19 is a vascular disease, demonstrating exactly how the SARS-CoV-2 virus damages and attacks the vascular system on a cellular level. The findings help explain COVID-19's wide variety of seemingly unconnected complications, and could open the door for new research into more effective therapies.

A lot of people think of it as a respiratory disease, but it's really a vascular disease. That could explain why some people have strokes, and why some people have issues in other parts of the body. The commonality between them is that they all have vascular underpinnings."

Uri Manor, Study Co-Senior Author and Assistant Research Professor

Salk researchers collaborated with scientists at the University of California San Diego on the paper, including co-first author Jiao Zhang and co-senior author John Shyy, among others.

While the findings themselves aren't entirely a surprise, the paper provides clear confirmation and a detailed explanation of the mechanism through which the protein damages vascular cells for the first time.

There's been a growing consensus that SARS-CoV-2 affects the vascular system, but exactly how it did so was not understood. Similarly, scientists studying other coronaviruses have long suspected that the spike protein contributed to damaging vascular endothelial cells, but this is the first time the process has been documented.

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In the new study, the researchers created a "pseudovirus" that was surrounded by SARS-CoV-2 classic crown of spike proteins, but did not contain any actual virus. Exposure to this pseudovirus resulted in damage to the lungs and arteries of an animal model--proving that the spike protein alone was enough to cause disease. Tissue samples showed inflammation in endothelial cells lining the pulmonary artery walls.

The team then replicated this process in the lab, exposing healthy endothelial cells (which line arteries) to the spike protein. They showed that the spike protein damaged the cells by binding ACE2. This binding disrupted ACE2's molecular signaling to mitochondria (organelles that generate energy for cells), causing the mitochondria to become damaged and fragmented.

Previous studies have shown a similar effect when cells were exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but this is the first study to show that the damage occurs when cells are exposed to the spike protein on its own.

"If you remove the replicating capabilities of the virus, it still has a major damaging effect on the vascular cells, simply by virtue of its ability to bind to this ACE2 receptor, the S protein receptor, now famous thanks to COVID," Manor explains. "Further studies with mutant spike proteins will also provide new insight towards the infectivity and severity of mutant SARS CoV-2 viruses."

The researchers next hope to take a closer look at the mechanism by which the disrupted ACE2 protein damages mitochondria and causes them to change shape.


   - January 19, 2022  Linkt to .pdf below.In recent days, the pandemic narrative has undergone a remarkable number of U-turns January 9, 2022, CDC director Dr. Rochelle Walensky sent out a tweet saying “We must protect people with comorbidities from severe COVID-19,” in other words, focused protection, which is what tens of thousands of doctors have been calling for since the c...  READ MORE
- Fielden Nolan (nolanf),  01/19/2022 
  

UK Study: Evidence Summary

Coronavirus (COVID-19) and the use of face coverings in education settings
Category: Published Studies: Masks are INEFFECTIVE
- January 11, 2022  In a weighted sample of secondary schools that did not use face masks, the average COVID-19 absence rate34 fell by 1.7 percentage points from 5.3% on 1 October 2021 to 3.6% in the 3rd week of October. This is equivalent to a 32% decrease. In secondary schools that did use face coverings35 (either face coverings only or a combination of face masks and additional commun...  READ MORE
- Fielden Nolan (nolanf),  01/11/2022 
   - December 22, 2021  If you had COVID-19 or received a COVID-19 injection, you may have dangerous spike proteins circulating in your bodySpike proteins can circulate in your body after infection or injection, causing damage to cells, tissues and organsThe World Council for Health has released a spike protein detox guide, which provides straightforward steps you can take to potentially le...  READ MORE
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   FROM: Frontiers | Rapid Progression of Angioimmunoblastic T Cell Lymphoma Following BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine Booster Shot: A Case Report | Medicine (frontiersin.org)1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasme Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium2Department of Hematology, Jules Bordet Institute, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium3Department of Patholo...  READ MORE
- Fielden Nolan (nolanf),  12/18/2021 
  

"More harm than good"

.PDF showing the dangers of the Pfizer COVID vaccine. The Moderna and J&J vaccines are even worse.
Category: Published Studies: mRNA Vaccines are NOT safe
- December 16, 2021  From Steve Kirsch:Please check out this superb presentation, more harm than good, assembled by the Canadian Covid Care Alliance (CCCA).Many highly qualified scientists and physicians contributed to and/or approved this. It is based on rock-solid scientific data. Most importantly, the core data set is Pfizer's own results from their recently published si...  READ MORE
- Fielden Nolan (nolanf),  12/16/2021 
   34 Pages Posted: 25 Oct 2021Peter NordströmUniversity of Umea - Unit of Geriatric MedicineMarcel BallinUniversity of UmeaAnna NordströmUniversity of UmeaMore...AbstractBackground: Whether vaccine effectiveness against Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) lasts longer than 6 months is unclear.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Swedish nationwide registries. The ...  READ MORE
- Fielden Nolan (nolanf),  12/12/2021 
   - November 2, 2021Due to the nature of the mRNA vaccine roll-out, healthcare providers need to report any issues in pregnancy to further determine the safety of this product. Caution should be exercised in the administration of vaccines in pregnancy, as indicated by the possible association between the exposure to influenza vaccines containing H1N1pdm09 (2010–11 and 2011–12) and sponta...  READ MORE
- Fielden Nolan (nolanf),  11/02/2021 
   - October 21, 2021Vaccines currently are the primary mitigation strategy to combat COVID-19 around the world. For instance, the narrative related to the ongoing surge of new cases in the United States (US) is argued to be driven by areas with low vaccination rates [1]. A similar narrative also has been observed in countries, such as Germany and the United Kingdom [2]. At the same time, Israel...  READ MORE
- Fielden Nolan (nolanf),  10/21/2021 
   Preliminary data were collected from June 2006 through October 2009 on 715,000 patients, and 1.4 million doses (of 45 different vaccines) were given to 376,452 individuals. Of these doses, 35,570 possible reactions (2.6 percent of vaccinations) were identified. This is an average of 890 possible events, an average of 1.3 events per clinician, per month. These data were presented at the 2009 AMIA c...  READ MORE
- Fielden Nolan (nolanf),  09/15/2021 

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